Phase-contrast photomicrograph showing cells of strain SulfLac1T. Bar, 10 microns. - Source:3Fermentation
Bacteria belonging to the genus Defluviitoga demonstrate a fermentative metabolism 3 2. The sole species of the genus can utilize a large variety of carbohydrates, as well as a number of complex polysaccharides such as chitin and cellulose 3 2. Ethanol, acetate, hydrogen and carbon dioxide are possible end-products of fermentation process 34. Proteins and fatty acids are not utilized 3. Growth occurs under anaerobic conditions, however 0.5% (v/v) O2 can be tolerated 3. Alternative terminal electron acceptors include thiosulfate and sulfur, but not sulfite, or sulfate 3. Cells of Defluviitoga are rod-shaped with a sheath-like outer structure and may occur singly, in pairs, or in long chains in pure culture 3. The in situ physiology of the genus in activated sludge has not been determind.
 Maus, Koeck, Cibis, Hahnke, Kim, Langer, et al. (2016): Unraveling the microbiome of a thermophilic biogas plant by metagenome and metatranscriptome analysis complemented by characterization of bacterial and archaeal isolates. Biotechnol Biofuels 9 (): 171. doi:10.1186/s13068-016-0581-3
 Ben Hania, Godbane, Postec, Hamdi, Ollivier, Fardeau, et al. (2012): Defluviitoga tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a mesothermic and anaerobic whey digester. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 62 (Pt 6): 1377-82. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.033720-0
 Maus, Cibis, Bremges, Stolze, Wibberg, Tomazetto, et al. (2016): Genomic characterization of Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3, a key hydrolytic bacterium in a thermophilic biogas plant and its abundance as determined by metagenome fragment recruitment. J. Biotechnol. 232 (): 50-60. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2016.05.001