Composite FISH image of activated sludge. Yellow = "Competibacteraceae"; Blue = "Ca. Accumulibacter"; Green = other cells. Scale bar = 10 microns. - Source:1Aerobic heterotroph
The originally defined "Ca. Competibacter" genus has been split. What was originally known as sub-group GB1 has essentially been redefined to represent the genus "Ca. Competibacter" 2. In situ behaviour is consistent with the GAO phenotype and they are thought to compete with the PAO for resources with their proliferation at the theoretical expense of EBPR efficiency 3 4. Members from the genus have not been demonstrated to denitrify in situ, utilizing nitrate, but not nitrite as an electron acceptor 3. However, genomic analysis of the species “Ca. C. denitrificans” indicates the potential for full denitrification to nitrogen 2. Members also appear to vary in their ability to assimilate thymidine and to ferment glucose, with single cell in situ analysis 3 2. Genome analysis of “Ca. C. denitrificans” reveals the potential for fermentation of glucose, and glycolysis via the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) and Embden-Mayerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathways.
CPB832 + CPB992 5. Use CPB_992 alone for higher specificity.
 McIlroy SJ (2010) Phylogenetic Diversity and Ecophysiology of Alphaproteobacterial Glycogen Accumulating Organisms in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Activated Sludge Systems. PhD Thesis La Trobe University. - Mcilroy -
 McIlroy, Albertsen, Andresen, Saunders, Kristiansen, Stokholm-Bjerregaard, et al. (2014): 'Candidatus Competibacter'-lineage genomes retrieved from metagenomes reveal functional metabolic diversity. ISME J 8 (3): 613-24. doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.162
 Kong, Xia, Nielsen, Nielsen (2006): Ecophysiology of a group of uncultured Gammaproteobacterial glycogen-accumulating organisms in full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal wastewater treatment plants. Environ. Microbiol. 8 (3): 479-89. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00914.x
 Blackall, Crocetti, Saunders, Bond (2002): A review and update of the microbiology of enhanced biological phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment plants. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81 (1-4): 681-91.
 McIlroy, Nittami, Kanai, Fukuda, Saunders, Nielsen, et al. (2015): Re-appraisal of the phylogeny and fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for the analysis of the Competibacteraceae in wastewater treatment systems. Environ Microbiol Rep 7 (2): 166-74. doi:10.1111/1758-2229.12215
 Kong, Ong, Ng, Liu (2002): Diversity and distribution of a deeply branched novel proteobacterial group found in anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge processes. Environ. Microbiol. 4 (11): 753-7.