ThaueraDid we forget anything? Let us know

Genus nameThauera
Alternative names
NCBI taxonomy ID33057

Taxonomy (MiDAS 2.0)


16S gene copy number4

 In situOther
Hydrophobic cell surface220

FISH micrographs of an Aalborg East WWTP sludge sample incubated with ethanol under denitrifying conditions with nitrite as electron acceptor and dual hybridized with FLUOS-labelled EUBmix and Cy3-labelled Thau646. Thauera-related cells appear yellow, other bacteria appear green (a). Scale bar corresponds to 10 microns. - Source:7

Aerobic heterotroph
Nitrite reduction
Short-chain fatty acids
Proteins/Amino acids

POSNEGVariableNot assessed


Thauera are denitrifiers with rod shaped morphology in situ 7 and in pure culture 8 9 10 11 12 13 14. They are versatile in their substrate uptake utilizing aromatic compounds, monoterpenes, amino acids and organic substrates such as sugars, acetate, lactate, pyruvate and ethanol, while using nitrate, nitrite or oxygen as electron acceptor 13 12 10 7. PHA is accumulated in situ 7. Abundant in denitrifying activated sludges 15. Implicated in the production of amyloid adhesins which are an abundant component of the EPS fraction in biofilms among activated sludge flocs and may be integral to biofilm formation and structure 16. Also implicated in "slime" formation forming "gel"-microcolonies 17.

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FISH probes

Thau646 (formerly probe MZ1) 18


 In situOther
Aerobic Heterotroph715891011121319
Nitrite Reduction715891011121314
Sulfate Reduction1013
Short-chain Fatty Acids715891012131419
Proteins/Amino Acids71589101319

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Activated Sludge0.10.20.6

Predominant InInfluent


[1] Tatusova, Ciufo, Fedorov, O'Neill, Tolstoy (2014): RefSeq microbial genomes database: new representation and annotation strategy. Nucleic Acids Res. 42 (Database issue): D553-9. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1274

[2] Guo, Zhang, Yu, Wei (2011): Variations of both bacterial community and extracellular polymers: the inducements of increase of cell hydrophobicity from biofloc to aerobic granule sludge. Bioresour. Technol. 102 (11): 6421-8. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2011.03.046

[3] - NCBI genome database, NCBI id 33057 -

[4] Liu, Frostegård, Shapleigh (2013): Draft genome sequences of five strains in the genus thauera. Genome Announc 1 (1): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00052-12

[5] Jiang, Sanseverino, Chauhan, Lucas, Copeland, Lapidus, et al. (2012): Complete genome sequence of Thauera aminoaromatica strain MZ1T. Stand Genomic Sci 6 (3): 325-35. doi:10.4056/sigs.2696029

[6] Debieux, Dridge, Mueller, Splatt, Paszkiewicz, Knight, et al. (2011): A bacterial process for selenium nanosphere assembly. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108 (33): 13480-5. doi:10.1073/pnas.1105959108

[7] Thomsen, Kong, Nielsen (2007): Ecophysiology of abundant denitrifying bacteria in activated sludge. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 60 (3): 370-82. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2007.00309.x

[8] Macy, Rech, Auling, Dorsch, Stackebrandt, Sly, et al. (1993): Thauera selenatis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the beta subclass of Proteobacteria with a novel type of anaerobic respiration. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43 (1): 135-42. doi:10.1099/00207713-43-1-135

[9] Anders, Kaetzke, Kämpfer, Ludwig, Fuchs (1995): Taxonomic position of aromatic-degrading denitrifying pseudomonad strains K 172 and KB 740 and their description as new members of the genera Thauera, as Thauera aromatica sp. nov., and Azoarcus, as Azoarcus evansii sp. nov., respectively, members of the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45 (2): 327-33. doi:10.1099/00207713-45-2-327

[10] Mechichi, Stackebrandt, Gad'on, Fuchs (2002): Phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of bacteria degrading aromatic compounds under denitrifying conditions, and description of Thauera phenylacetica sp. nov., Thauera aminoaromaticasp. nov., and Azoarcus buckelii sp. nov. Arch. Microbiol. 178 (1): 26-35. doi:10.1007/s00203-002-0422-6

[11] Dubbels, Sayavedra-Soto, Bottomley, Arp (2009): Thauera butanivorans sp. nov., a C2-C9 alkane-oxidizing bacterium previously referred to as 'Pseudomonas butanovora'. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59 (Pt 7): 1576-8. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.000638-0

[12] Song, Palleroni, Kerkhof, Häggblom (2001): Characterization of halobenzoate-degrading, denitrifying Azoarcus and Thauera isolates and description of Thauera chlorobenzoica sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (Pt 2): 589-602. doi:10.1099/00207713-51-2-589

[13] Foss, Harder (1998): Thauera linaloolentis sp. nov. and Thauera terpenica sp. nov., isolated on oxygen-containing monoterpenes (linalool, menthol, and eucalyptol) nitrate. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 21 (3): 365-73.

[14] Scholten, Lukow, Auling, Kroppenstedt, Rainey, Diekmann, et al. (1999): Thauera mechernichensis sp. nov., an aerobic denitrifier from a leachate treatment plant. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49 Pt 3 (): 1045-51. doi:10.1099/00207713-49-3-1045

[15] Morgan-Sagastume, Nielsen, Nielsen (2008): Substrate-dependent denitrification of abundant probe-defined denitrifying bacteria in activated sludge. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 66 (2): 447-61. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2008.00571.x

[16] Larsen, Nielsen, Otzen, Nielsen (2008): Amyloid-like adhesins produced by floc-forming and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74 (5): 1517-26. doi:10.1128/AEM.02274-07

[17] Allen, M.S. (2002) Isolation and investigation of the exopolysaccharide from Thauera sp. MZ1T. PhD Thesis. University of Tenesee. - Allen 2002 -

[18] Lajoie, C.A., Layton, A.C., Gregory, I.R., Sayler, G.S., Taylor, D.E., and Meyers, A.J. (1999) Zoogleal clusters and sludge dewatering potential in an industrial activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant. Water Environment Research. 72(1): 56-64. - Lajoie Et Al 1999 -

[19] Yang, Zhang, Kwon, Zhou, Han, Chen, et al. (2013): Thauera humireducens sp. nov., a humus-reducing bacterium isolated from a microbial fuel cell. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 63 (Pt 3): 873-8. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.040956-0

[20] Wan, Chen, Wen, Lee, Liu (2015): Formation of bacterial aerobic granules: Role of propionate. Bioresour. Technol. 197 (): 489-94. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2015.08.137

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