SphaerotilusDid we forget anything? Let us know

Genus nameSphaerotilus
SourcePublished
Alternative names
NCBI taxonomy ID34102

Taxonomy (MiDAS 2.0)

KingdomBacteria

16S gene copy number1-3
GenomesYes39

 In situOther
Filamentous1514567
Hydrophobic cell surface


Type I (Sphaerotilus natans), strain 3. Fig (top): S. natans grown as an iron bacterium in the apparatus of Fig. 1 ; Fig (bottom): cells grown on S+ -agar, 810 x. - Source:4

Aerobic heterotroph
Fermentation
Short-chain fatty acids
Sugars
Proteins/Amino acids

POSNEGVariableNot assessed

Description

Associated with activated sludge bulking. In situ and in pure culture, morphology occurs as straight, rod shaped cells forming long filaments, enclosed in clear sheaths with false branching and single rods 1 5 6 4. Metabolism is respiratory, aerobic and chemoorganotrophic 7 2, where a wide range of carbon substrates are utilized for growth. Poly- β-hydroxybutyrate is stored in granules as reserve material. Polysaccharides may also accumulate 2. Capable of Fe(II) oxidation 2 10. Mixotrophical growth of S. natans strain DSM 6575T has been demonstrated with pyruvate as carbon source, Fe(II) as electron donors and nitrate as an electron acceptor 9.

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FISH probes

SNA 1

Metabolism

 In situOther
Chemoautotroph/Mixotroph
AOB
NOB
Anammox
Aerobic Heterotroph567
PAO
GAO
Nitrite Reduction
Sulfate Reduction
Fermentation5
Acetogen
Methanogen
Short-chain Fatty Acids4578
Sugars4567
Proteins/Amino Acids457

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Influent000.9
Activated Sludge000.1
Digester-Mesophilic000
Digester-Thermophilic000

Predominant InInfluent

References

[1] Wagner, M., Amann, R., Kampfer, P., Assmus, B., Hartmann, A., Hutzler, P., Springer, N., and Schleifer, K.H. (1994) Identification and in situ detection of Gram-negative filamentous bacteria in activated sludge. System. Appl. Microbiol. 17(3): 405-417. - Wagner Et Al 1994 -

[2] - -

[3] - NCBI genome database, NCBI id 34102 -

[4] Mulder, E.G., and van Veen, W.L. (1963) Investigations on the Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix Group. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 29. 121-153. - Mulder And Van Veen 1963docx -

[5] Richard, M., Hao, O., Jenkins, D. (1985) Growth kinetics of Sphaerotilus species and their significance in activated sludge bulking. Water Pollution Control Federation. 57(1): 68-81. - Richard Et Al 1985docx -

[6] STOKES (1954): Studies on the filamentous sheathed iron bacterium Sphaerotilus natans. J. Bacteriol. 67 (3): 278-91.

[7] Gridneva, Chernousova, Dubinina, Akimov, Kuever, Detkova, et al. (2011): Taxonomic investigation of representatives of the genus Sphaerotilus: descriptions of Sphaerotilus montanus sp. nov., Sphaerotilus hippei sp. nov., Sphaerotilus natans subsp. natans subsp. nov. and Sphaerotilus natans subsp. sulfidivorans subsp. nov., and an emended description of the genus Sphaerotilus. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 61 (Pt 4): 916-25. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.023887-0

[8] Nielsen, Christensen, Kloppenborg, Nielsen (2003): Quantification of cell-specific substrate uptake by probe-defined bacteria under in situ conditions by microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Environ. Microbiol. 5 (3): 202-11.

[9] Park, Kim, Lee, Hur (2014): Sphaerotilus natans encrusted with nanoball-shaped Fe(III) oxide minerals formed by nitrate-reducing mixotrophic Fe(II) oxidation. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 90 (1): 68-77. doi:10.1111/1574-6941.12372

[10] Pellegrin, Juretschko, Wagner, Cottenceau (1999): Morphological and biochemical properties of a Sphaerotilus sp. Isolated from paper mill slimes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65 (1): 156-62.

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