DefluviicoccusDid we forget anything? Let us know

Genus nameDefluviicoccus
Alternative names"Candidatus Monolibacter batavus", 'Nostocoida limicola' (cluster III); Defluvicoccus
NCBI taxonomy ID111830

Taxonomy (MiDAS 2.0)


16S gene copy number

 In situOther
Hydrophobic cell surface113

FISH image of the biomass from lab-scale anaerobic–aerobic SBR in which P removal had deteriorated. Magenta-coloured cells are Cluster 2 D. vanus, cyan-coloured cells are "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" and purple-coloured cells, are other bacteria. Scale bar = 10 microns. - Source:5

Aerobic heterotroph
Short-chain fatty acids
Proteins/Amino acids

POSNEGVariableNot assessed


Glycogen accumulating organsims (GAO) thought to compete with the PAO for resources with their proliferation at the theoretical expense of EBPR efficiency 6. Thought to specialize in short chain fatty acids which are stored as PHA under anaerobic conditions 7 8. Filamentous forms are also implicated in bulking 9.

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Distribution plant/process configuration

Nutrient removal systems treating both domestic and municiple wastes. Relative higher abundance in EBPR plants 10. Their proliferation has been suggested to be due to excess substrate availability, due to a high COD:P ration or EBPR failure 11.


Defluviicoccus-related clusters I, II, III & IV. Clusters I, II and IV exhibit a tetrad forming organism (TFO) morphology 56 9 10.

FISH probes

Cluster I = DF776 6; Cluster II = DF988 + DF1020 5; Cluster III = DF198 9; Cluster IV = DF180b 10. Cluster III has filamentous morphology 9.


 In situOther
Aerobic Heterotroph5678133412
Nitrite Reduction8143
Sulfate Reduction3
Short-chain Fatty Acids56781312
Proteins/Amino Acids81312

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Activated Sludge00.10.9

Predominant InActivated sludge


[1] Kragelund, Kong, van der Waarde, Thelen, Eikelboom, Tandoi, et al. (2006): Ecophysiology of different filamentous Alphaproteobacteria in industrial wastewater treatment plants. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 152 (Pt 10): 3003-12. doi:10.1099/mic.0.29249-0

[2] McIlroy, Speirs, Tucci, Seviour (2011): In situ profiling of microbial communities in full-scale aerobic sequencing batch reactors treating winery waste in australia. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45 (20): 8794-803. doi:10.1021/es2018576

[3] Nobu, Tamaki, Kubota, Liu (2014): Metagenomic characterization of 'Candidatus Defluviicoccus tetraformis strain TFO71', a tetrad-forming organism, predominant in an anaerobic-aerobic membrane bioreactor with deteriorated biological phosphorus removal. Environ. Microbiol. 16 (9): 2739-51. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.12383

[4] Wang, Guo, Mao, Xia, Zhang (2014): Metabolic characteristics of a glycogen-accumulating organism in Defluviicoccus cluster II revealed by comparative genomics. Microb. Ecol. 68 (4): 716-28. doi:10.1007/s00248-014-0440-3

[5] Meyer, Saunders, Blackall (2006): Putative glycogen-accumulating organisms belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria identified through rRNA-based stable isotope probing. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 152 (Pt 2): 419-29. doi:10.1099/mic.0.28445-0

[6] Wong, Liu (2007): Ecophysiology of Defluviicoccus-related tetrad-forming organisms in an anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge process. Environ. Microbiol. 9 (6): 1485-96. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01267.x

[7] Wong, Tan, Ng, Liu (2004): Identification and occurrence of tetrad-forming Alphaproteobacteria in anaerobic-aerobic activated sludge processes. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 150 (Pt 11): 3741-8. doi:10.1099/mic.0.27291-0

[8] Burow, Kong, Nielsen, Blackall, Nielsen (2007): Abundance and ecophysiology of Defluviicoccus spp., glycogen-accumulating organisms in full-scale wastewater treatment processes. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 153 (Pt 1): 178-85. doi:10.1099/mic.0.2006/001032-0

[9] Nittami, McIlroy, Seviour, Schroeder, Seviour (2009): Candidatus Monilibacter spp., common bulking filaments in activated sludge, are members of Cluster III Defluviicoccus. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 32 (7): 480-9. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2009.07.003

[10] McIlroy, Seviour (2009): Elucidating further phylogenetic diversity among the Defluviicoccus-related glycogen-accumulating organisms in activated sludge. Environ Microbiol Rep 1 (6): 563-8. doi:10.1111/j.1758-2229.2009.00082.x

[11] Tu, Schuler (2013): Low acetate concentrations favor polyphosphate-accumulating organisms over glycogen-accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal from wastewater. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47 (8): 3816-24. doi:10.1021/es304846s

[12] Maszenan, Seviour, Patel, Janssen, Wanner (2005): Defluvicoccus vanus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel Gram-negative coccus/coccobacillus in the 'Alphaproteobacteria' from activated sludge. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55 (Pt 5): 2105-11. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02332-0

[13] McIlroy, Nittami, Seviour, Seviour (2010): Filamentous members of cluster III Defluviicoccus have the in situ phenotype expected of a glycogen-accumulating organism in activated sludge. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 74 (1): 248-56. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2010.00934.x

[14] Wang, Zeng, Dai, Peng, Yuan (2008): The denitrification capability of cluster 1 Defluviicoccus vanus-related glycogen-accumulating organisms. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 99 (6): 1329-36. doi:10.1002/bit.21711

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