Candidatus BrocadiaDid we forget anything? Let us know

Genus nameCandidatus Brocadia
Alternative names
NCBI taxonomy ID380240

Taxonomy (MiDAS 2.0)


16S gene copy number1

 In situOther
Hydrophobic cell surface

FISH image of Brocadia in a biofilm (yellow) with other bacteria (green). The biofilm surface is at the top of the images. - Source:4

Nitrite reduction

POSNEGVariableNot assessed


Brocadia are anammox bacteria, with coccoid cell morphology 5. They are found in specific wastewater treatment processes that are designed for their enrichment, such as granular or biofilm reactors treating digester leachate. They are anaerobic ammonium oxidizers, which convert ammonium to nitrogen gas with nitrite as the preferred electron acceptor in the absence of oxygen 6 7 8. Interestingly, the genes encoding Cytochrome cd1 for nitrite reductase are missing in the "Candidatus Brocadia fulgida" and "Ca. B. sinica" genomes, suggesting that "Ca. Brocadia" employ an unidentified nitrite reductase for nitrite reduction in the anammox process 3 9. The ability to oxidize nitrite may be possible for some species 9, even though "Ca. Brocadia" are not considered 'Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria' (NOB). Members of the genus are chemolithoautotrophs, although mixotrophic growth has been shown by "Ca. B. fulgida" where organic compounds namely acetate, propionate, formate, monomethylamine and dimethylamine can be used as additional carbon source, with nitrate/nitrite as electron acceptor 7. Brocadia species exhibit the common characteristics of anammox bacteria: the presence of an anammoxosome and ladderane lipids and the production of hydrazine in the presence of hydroxylamine 7.

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Distribution plant/process configuration

Brocadia are found in specific wastewater treatment processes that are designed for their enrichment, such as granular or biofilm reactors treating digester leachate.


Four species have been studied: "Ca. B. anammoxidans", "Ca. B. fulgida", "Ca. B. sinica", and "Ca. B. sapporoensis".

FISH probes

AMX820 5 is the preferred probe for anammox bacteria in wastewater treatment systems, as it encompasses Brocadia and related anammox genera 5. Amx1900 16 targets "Ca. B. anammoxidans" and "Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis". Aggregates of "Ca. B. fulgida" show strong autofluorescence after several months of enrichment, however this property is not general for all Brocadia species 7. Bfu613 targets "Ca. B. fulgida"7 and Ban162 is specific for "Ca. B. anammoxidans" 16.


 In situOther
Aerobic Heterotroph67
Nitrite Reduction71267813
Sulfate Reduction
Short-chain Fatty Acids127
Proteins/Amino Acids

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Activated Sludge000

Predominant In-


[1] - NCBI genome database, NCBI id 380240 -

[2] Ferousi, Speth, Reimann, Op den Camp, Allen, Keltjens, et al. (2013): Identification of the type II cytochrome c maturation pathway in anammox bacteria by comparative genomics. BMC Microbiol. 13 (): 265. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-13-265

[3] Oshiki, Shinyako-Hata, Satoh, Okabe (2015): Draft Genome Sequence of an Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacterium, "Candidatus Brocadia sinica". Genome Announc 3 (2): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00267-15

[4] Kindaichi, Tsushima, Ogasawara, Shimokawa, Ozaki, Satoh, et al. (2007): In situ activity and spatial organization of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria in biofilms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73 (15): 4931-9. doi:10.1128/AEM.00156-07

[5] Schmid, Twachtmann, Klein, Strous, Juretschko, Jetten, et al. (2000): Molecular evidence for genus level diversity of bacteria capable of catalyzing anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 23 (1): 93-106. doi:10.1016/S0723-2020(00)80050-8

[6] Jetten, Wagner, Fuerst, van Loosdrecht, Kuenen, Strous, et al. (2001): Microbiology and application of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation ('anammox') process. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 12 (3): 283-8.

[7] Kartal, van Niftrik, Rattray, van de Vossenberg, Schmid, Sinninghe Damsté, et al. (2008): Candidatus 'Brocadia fulgida': an autofluorescent anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacterium. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 63 (1): 46-55. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2007.00408.x

[8] Hu, Zheng, Tang, Chen, van der Biezen, Zhang, et al. (2010): Identification and quantification of anammox bacteria in eight nitrogen removal reactors. Water Res. 44 (17): 5014-20. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2010.07.021

[9] Gori, Tringe, Kartal, Marchiori, Machiori, Jetten, et al. (2011): The metagenomic basis of anammox metabolism in Candidatus 'Brocadia fulgida'. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 39 (6): 1799-804. doi:10.1042/BST20110707

[10] Wagner, Nielsen, Loy, Nielsen, Daims (2006): Linking microbial community structure with function: fluorescence in situ hybridization-microautoradiography and isotope arrays. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 17 (1): 83-91. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2005.12.006

[11] Schmid, Maas, Dapena, van de Pas-Schoonen, van de Vossenberg, Kartal, et al. (2005): Biomarkers for in situ detection of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 (4): 1677-84. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.4.1677-1684.2005

[12] Laureni, Weissbrodt, Szivák, Robin, Nielsen, Morgenroth, et al. (2015): Activity and growth of anammox biomass on aerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater. Water Res. 80 (): 325-36. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2015.04.026

[13] Kartal, B., van, Niftrik, L., Sliekers, O., Schmid, M.C., Schmidt, I., van de Pas-Schoonen, K., Cirpus, I., van der Star, W., van Loosdrecht, M., Abma, W., Gijs, Keunen, J., Mulder, J-W., Jetten, M.S.M., Op den Camp, H., Strous, M., van de Vossenberg, J. (2004) Application, ecophysiology and biodiversity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology. 3: 255-264. - Kartal Et Al 2004 -

[14] Lawson, Wu, Bhattacharjee, Hamilton, McMahon, Goel, et al. (2017): Metabolic network analysis reveals microbial community interactions in anammox granules. Nat Commun 8 (): 15416. doi:10.1038/ncomms15416

[15] Ali, Haroon, Narita, Zhang, Rangel Shaw, Okabe, et al. (2016): Draft Genome Sequence of the Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacterium "Candidatus Brocadia sp. 40". Genome Announc 4 (6): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.01377-16

[16] Schmid, Schmitz-Esser, Jetten, Wagner (2001): 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer and 23S rDNA of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria: implications for phylogeny and in situ detection. Environ. Microbiol. 3 (7): 450-9.

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