Candidatus BrocadiaDid we forget anything? Let us know

Genus nameCandidatus Brocadia
SourcePublished
Alternative names
NCBI taxonomy ID380240

Taxonomy

KingdomBacteria
FamilyBrocadiaceae

16S gene copy number1
GenomesYes123

 In situOther
Filamentous57
Hydrophobic cell surface


FISH image of Brocadia in a biofilm (yellow) with other bacteria (green). The biofilm surface is at the top of the images. - Source:4

Autotroph/Mixotroph
AOB
NOB
Anammox
Nitrite reduction

POSNEGVariableNot assessed

Description

Brocadia are anammox bacteria, with coccoid cell morphology 5. They are found in specific wastewater treatment processes that are designed for their enrichment, such as granular or biofilm reactors treating digester leachate. They are anaerobic ammonium oxidizers, which convert ammonium to nitrogen gas with nitrite as the preferred electron acceptor in the absence of oxygen 6 7 8. Interestingly, the genes encoding Cytochrome cd1 for nitrite reductase are missing in the "Candidatus Brocadia fulgida" and "Ca. B. sinica" genomes, suggesting that Ca. Brocadia employ an unidentified nitrite reductase for nitrite reduction in the anammox process 3 9. The ability to oxidize nitrite may be possible for some species 9, even though Ca. Brocadia are not considered 'Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria' (NOB). Members of the genus are chemolithoautotrophs, although mixotrophic growth has been shown by Ca. B. fulgida where organic compounds namely acetate, propionate, formate, monomethylamine and dimethylamine can be used as additional carbon source, with nitrate/nitrite as electron acceptor 7. Brocadia species exhibit the common characteristics of anammox bacteria: the presence of an anammoxosome and ladderane lipids and the production of hydrazine in the presence of hydroxylamine 7.

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Distribution plant/process configuration

Brocadia are found in specific wastewater treatment processes that are designed for their enrichment, such as granular or biofilm reactors treating digester leachate.

Diversity

Three species have been studied: "Ca. B. anammoxidans", "Ca. B. fulgida", and "Ca. B. sinica".

FISH probes

AMX820 5 is the preferred probe for anammox bacteria in wastewater treatment systems, as it encompasses Brocadia and related anammox genera 5. Aggregates of "Ca. B. fulgida" show strong autofluorescence after several months of enrichment, however this property is not general for all Brocadia species 7.

Metabolism

 In situOther
Autotroph/Mixotroph510117
AOB12678
NOB9
Anammox671267813
Aerobic Heterotroph67
PAO
GAO
Nitrite Reduction71267813
Sulphate Reduction
Fermentation
Acetogen
Methanogen
Fatty Acids127
Sugars12
Proteins/Amino Acids

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Influent000
Activated Sludge000
Digester-Mesophilic000
Digester-Thermophilic000

Predominant In-

References

[1] - NCBI genome database, NCBI id 380240 -

[2] Ferousi, Speth, Reimann, Op den Camp, Allen, Keltjens, et al. - Identification of the type II cytochrome c maturation pathway in anammox bacteria by comparative genomics. - BMC Microbiol. 13(): 265. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-13-265

[3] Oshiki, Shinyako-Hata, Satoh, Okabe - Draft Genome Sequence of an Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacterium, "Candidatus Brocadia sinica". - Genome Announc 3(2): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00267-15

[4] Kindaichi, Tsushima, Ogasawara, Shimokawa, Ozaki, Satoh, et al. - In situ activity and spatial organization of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria in biofilms. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(15): 4931-9. doi:10.1128/AEM.00156-07

[5] Schmid, Twachtmann, Klein, Strous, Juretschko, Jetten, et al. - Molecular evidence for genus level diversity of bacteria capable of catalyzing anaerobic ammonium oxidation. - Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 23(1): 93-106. doi:10.1016/S0723-2020(00)80050-8

[6] Jetten, Wagner, Fuerst, van Loosdrecht, Kuenen, Strous, et al. - Microbiology and application of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation ('anammox') process. - Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 12(3): 283-8.

[7] Kartal, van Niftrik, Rattray, van de Vossenberg, Schmid, Sinninghe Damsté, et al. - Candidatus 'Brocadia fulgida': an autofluorescent anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacterium. - FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 63(1): 46-55. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2007.00408.x

[8] Hu, Zheng, Tang, Chen, van der Biezen, Zhang, et al. - Identification and quantification of anammox bacteria in eight nitrogen removal reactors. - Water Res. 44(17): 5014-20. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2010.07.021

[9] Gori, Tringe, Kartal, Marchiori, Machiori, Jetten, et al. - The metagenomic basis of anammox metabolism in Candidatus 'Brocadia fulgida'. - Biochem. Soc. Trans. 39(6): 1799-804. doi:10.1042/BST20110707

[10] Wagner, Nielsen, Loy, Nielsen, Daims - Linking microbial community structure with function: fluorescence in situ hybridization-microautoradiography and isotope arrays. - Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 17(1): 83-91. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2005.12.006

[11] Schmid, Maas, Dapena, van de Pas-Schoonen, van de Vossenberg, Kartal, et al. - Biomarkers for in situ detection of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(4): 1677-84. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.4.1677-1684.2005

[12] Laureni, Weissbrodt, Szivák, Robin, Nielsen, Morgenroth, et al. - Activity and growth of anammox biomass on aerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater. - Water Res. 80(): 325-36. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2015.04.026

[13] Kartal, B., van, Niftrik, L., Sliekers, O., Schmid, M.C., Schmidt, I., van de Pas-Schoonen, K., Cirpus, I., van der Star, W., van Loosdrecht, M., Abma, W., Gijs, Keunen, J., Mulder, J-W., Jetten, M.S.M., Op den Camp, H., Strous, M., van de Vossenberg, J. (2004) Application, ecophysiology and biodiversity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology. 3: 255-264. - Kartal Et Al 2004 -

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