Ruminococcus 2

Genus nameRuminococcus 2
Alternative namesPeptostreptococcus productus, Streptococcus productus, Streptococcus hansenii
NCBI taxonomy ID1263



16S gene copy number1-5

 In situOther
Hydrophobic cell surface

Fatty acids

POSNEGVariableNot assessed


Strictly anaerobic, carbohydrate fermenters 8. Some species are H2/CO2 utilizing acetogens 9 10. Autotrophic and/or heterotrophic growth is possible by some species through the metabolism of H2/CO2, and a variety of organic substrates, respectively 9 10 8 11 2. Acetate, formate, succinate, lactate and ethanol are produced as by products of fermentation 8 11 9 10 2. Cellulose is degraded by some species 11 6. Cells of Ruminococcus are coccobacilli, occurring in pairs or short chains 8 9 10. No in situ information is available for the genus in wastewater treatment systems.

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FISH probes

Rfla729, targets Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens. Rbro730, targets R. bromii, Clostridium leptum and C. sporosphaeroides 12. Probe ProCo1264, specifc for R. productus 13. Probes, RAL1436 and RFL155, specifically target R. albus- related clones and R. flavefaciens- related clones, respectively 14.


 In situOther
Aerobic Heterotroph28910
Nitrite Reduction
Sulphate Reduction
Fatty Acids9
Proteins/Amino Acids8

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Activated Sludge00.10.2

Predominant InInfluent


[1] - NCBI genome database, NCBI id 1263 -

[2] Hynönen, Rasinkangas, Satokari, Paulin, de Vos, Pietilä, et al. - Isolation and whole genome sequencing of a Ruminococcus-like bacterium, associated with irritable bowel syndrome. - Anaerobe 39(): 60-7. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.03.001

[3] Jeraldo, Hernández, White, O'Brien, Ahlquist, Boardman, et al. - Draft genome sequences of 24 microbial strains assembled from direct sequencing from 4 stool samples. - Genome Announc 3(3): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00526-15

[4] Dassa, Borovok, Ruimy-Israeli, Lamed, Flint, Duncan, et al. - Rumen cellulosomics: divergent fiber-degrading strategies revealed by comparative genome-wide analysis of six ruminococcal strains. - PLoS ONE 9(7): e99221. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099221

[5] Berg Miller, Antonopoulos, Rincon, Band, Bari, Akraiko, et al. - Diversity and strain specificity of plant cell wall degrading enzymes revealed by the draft genome of Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1. - PLoS ONE 4(8): e6650. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006650

[6] Suen, Stevenson, Bruce, Chertkov, Copeland, Cheng, et al. - Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7. - J. Bacteriol. 193(19): 5574-5. doi:10.1128/JB.05621-11

[7] Wegmann, Louis, Goesmann, Henrissat, Duncan, Flint, et al. - Complete genome of a new Firmicutes species belonging to the dominant human colonic microbiota ('Ruminococcus bicirculans') reveals two chromosomes and a selective capacity to utilize plant glucans. - Environ. Microbiol. 16(9): 2879-90. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.12217

[8] - -

[9] Bernalier, Willems, Leclerc, Rochet, Collins - Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus sp. nov., a new H2/CO2-utilizing acetogenic bacterium isolated from human feces. - Arch. Microbiol. 166(3): 176-83.

[10] Rieu-Lesme, Morvan, Collins, Fonty, Willems - A new H2/CO2-using acetogenic bacterium from the rumen: description of Ruminococcus schinkii sp. nov. - FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 140(2-3): 281-6.

[11] Pavlostathis, Miller, Wolin - Fermentation of Insoluble Cellulose by Continuous Cultures of Ruminococcus albus. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54(11): 2655-9.

[12] Harmsen, Raangs, He, Degener, Welling - Extensive set of 16S rRNA-based probes for detection of bacteria in human feces. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(6): 2982-90.

[13] Clavel, Henderson, Alpert, Philippe, Rigottier-Gois, Doré, et al. - Intestinal bacterial communities that produce active estrogen-like compounds enterodiol and enterolactone in humans. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(10): 6077-85. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.10.6077-6085.2005

[14] Kong, He, McAlister, Seviour, Forster - Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of microbial communities in the rumens of cattle fed different diets. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76(20): 6933-8. doi:10.1128/AEM.00217-10

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The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the Silva database and is redistributed for non-commercial use only.


Citing MiDAS: McIlroy S.J., Saunders A.M., Albertsen M., Nierychlo M., McIlroy B., Hansen A.A., Karst S.M., Nielsen J.L., Nielsen P.H. (2015) MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge. Database, Vol. 2015

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