LactococcusDid we forget anything? Let us know

Genus nameLactococcus
Alternative namesStreptococcus lactis (including its subspecies), S. garvieae, S. plantarum, S. raffinolactis, Lactobacillus xylosus, L. hordniae
NCBI taxonomy ID1357

Taxonomy (MiDAS 2.0)


16S gene copy number1-6

 In situOther
Hydrophobic cell surface1213

FISH and MAR image showing Lactococcus (probe Lac93). Red/yellow microcolonies and cells are an overlay of red and green fluorescence images (specific probes in red and the bacterial probes EUB mixture in green). Bar, 10 microns. - Source:1

Aerobic heterotroph

POSNEGVariableNot assessed


Members of the genus demonstrate a fermentative metabolism under anaerobic conditions in situ 1. Growth is chemoorganotrophic, and various sugars including glucose, are utilized as carbon sources 4. They are facultatively anaerobic organisms 4, however growth can also occur anaerobically 5 6 7 or aerobically 8 9. Long, thin filaments (>500 microns) of Lactococcus raffinolactis have been isolated from industrial activated sludge by micromanipulation 2. Cells typically appear as sphere or ovoid shaped, occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains 4. Rod shaped forms have been identified in situ 1 and in pure cultures isolated from sludge 2.

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FISH probes

LAC93 1


 In situOther
Aerobic Heterotroph4567891014
Nitrite Reduction2
Sulfate Reduction
Short-chain Fatty Acids
Proteins/Amino Acids

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Activated Sludge00.10.4

Predominant InInfluent


[1] Nielsen, Nguyen, Meyer, Nielsen (2012): Identification of glucose-fermenting bacteria in a full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal plant by stable isotope probing. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 158 (Pt 7): 1818-25. doi:10.1099/mic.0.058818-0

[2] Levantesi, Rossetti, Beimfohr, Thelen, Krooneman, van der Waarde, et al. (2006): Description of filamentous bacteria present in industrial activated sludge WWTPs by conventional and molecular methods. Water Sci. Technol. 54 (1): 129-37.

[3] - NCBI genome database, NCBI id 1357 -

[4] Schleifer, K.H., Kraus, J., Dvorak, C., Kilpper, Balz, R., Collins, M.D., and Fischer, W. (1985) Transfer of Streptococcus lactis and related Streptococci to the genus Lactococcus gen. nov. System Appl. Microbiol. 6: 183-195. - Schleifer Et Al 1985docx -

[5] Chen, Otoguro, Lin, Pan, Ji, Yu, et al. (2014): Lactococcus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from yan-tsai-shin (fermented broccoli stems). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 64 (Pt 1): 146-51. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.052811-0

[6] Yan Yang, Zheng, Huang, Min Wang, Yang (2016): Lactococcus nasutitermitis sp. nov. isolated from a termite gut. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 66 (1): 518-22. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.000743

[7] Chen, Chang, Pan, Wang, Chang, Wu, et al. (2013): Lactococcus taiwanensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from fresh cummingcordia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 63 (Pt 7): 2405-9. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.045757-0

[8] Cho, Nam, Yoon, Lee, Sukhoom, Kim, et al. (2008): Lactococcus chungangensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from activated sludge foam. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58 (Pt 8): 1844-9. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65527-0

[9] Meucci, Zago, Rossetti, Fornasari, Bonvini, Tidona, et al. (2015): Lactococcus hircilactis sp. nov. and Lactococcus laudensis sp. nov., isolated from milk. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 65 (7): 2091-6. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.000225

[10] Cai, Yang, Pang, Kitahara (2011): Lactococcus fujiensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from vegetable matter. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 61 (Pt 7): 1590-4. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.025130-0

[11] Teixeira, Merquior, Vianni, Carvalho, Fracalanzza, Steigerwalt, et al. (1996): Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from water buffalos with subclinical mastitis and confirmation of L. garvieae as a senior subjective synonym of Enterococcus seriolicida. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46 (3): 664-8. doi:10.1099/00207713-46-3-664

[12] Giaouris, Chapot-Chartier, Briandet (2009): Surface physicochemical analysis of natural Lactococcus lactis strains reveals the existence of hydrophobic and low charged strains with altered adhesive properties. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 131 (1): 2-9. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.09.006

[13] Boonaert, Rouxhet (2000): Surface of lactic acid bacteria: relationships between chemical composition and physicochemical properties. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 (6): 2548-54.

[14] Williams, Fryer, Collins (1990): Lactococcus piscium sp. nov. a new Lactococcus species from salmonid fish. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 56 (1-2): 109-13. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1990.tb04132.x

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