Whole cell identification of enterococci. Identical fields are viewed by phase contrast (left) and epifluorescence microscopy (right; double exposures using filter sets 09 and 15). B. subtilis, E. faecium and E. faecalis hybridized with the fluoroscein- labelled probe Efs (specific for E. faecalis) and the rhodamine-labelled probe Efm (specific for E. faecium). In the epifluorescence micrograph cells of E. faecalis are visualized green and E. faecium red. Where cells of these two species lay on each other the resulting colour upon double exposure is yellow. - Source:3Aerobic heterotroph
Facultatively anaerobic, fermenters. Members of the genus utilize a wide range of organic substrates for growth including sugars, fatty acids and amino acids 4 5. Typically, cells of Enterococcus appear ovoid, occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains, however Nostocoida limicola-like filaments (>500 microns long) have been isolated by micromanipulation from industrial activated sludge 6.
Efs (specific for E. faecalis) and Efm (specific for E. faecium) 3
 Lory, S. (2014) The family Enterococcaceae. In: E. Rosenberg., E.F. DeLong., S. Lory., E. Stackebrandt., F. Thompson. (eds.) The prokaryotes. Firmicutes and Tenericutes. Pp. 75-77. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. - -
 Ludwig, W., Schleifer, K-H., and Whitman, W.B. (2011) Family IV. Enterococcaceae fam. Nov. in: P. Vos., G. Garrity., D. Jones., N.R. Kreig., W. Ludwig., F.A. Rainey., K-H. Schleifer., and W. Whitman. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology:Volume 3: The Firmicutes. pp 594-601. Springer. - -
 Levantesi, Rossetti, Beimfohr, Thelen, Krooneman, van der Waarde, et al. (2006): Description of filamentous bacteria present in industrial activated sludge WWTPs by conventional and molecular methods. Water Sci. Technol. 54(1): 129-37.
 Hirt, Erlandsen, Dunny (2000): Heterologous inducible expression of Enterococcus faecalis pCF10 aggregation substance asc10 in Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus gordonii contributes to cell hydrophobicity and adhesion to fibrin. J. Bacteriol. 182(8): 2299-306.