TrichococcusDid we forget anything? Let us know

Genus nameTrichococcus
Alternative namesNostocoida limicola I (morphotype); Lactosphaera pasteurii, Ruminococcus palustris and 'Carnococcus allantoicus' were reclassified to the genus.
NCBI taxonomy ID82802

Taxonomy (MiDAS 2.0)


16S gene copy number3-7

 In situOther
Hydrophobic cell surface

Scanning electron micrographs of T. flocculiformis EchtT (a, b), L. pasteurii KoTa2T (c, d), ‘C. allantoicus ’ NDP (e, f ), growing on SR2A agar (a, c, e) and on R2A agar (b, d, f), showing the morphological variations in cell shape and arrangement of these organisms. Bar, 2 microns. - Source:1

Aerobic heterotroph
Short-chain fatty acids
Proteins/Amino acids

POSNEGVariableNot assessed


Trichococcus are fermentative organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth 1 2 3. All species are mesophilic and psychrotolerant. Members of this genus have a pleomorphic cytology: the cells most commonly occur as regular spherical cocci, which become sometimes ovoid or elongated ‘rodlike’ due to the process of cell division. The cells occur singly, in pairs, in irregular clumps or as conglomerates, or in short or long chains. They are motile by means of peritrichous flagella 7. Some members of the genus have a filamentous morphotype and have been implicated in bulking 4. The cell wall usually stains as Gram-positive, but at a certain stage of growth it can express the Gram-negative reaction 7. High abundance in activated sludge is influenced by a high level of immigration from the influent. However a positive growth rate in activated sludge is noted 5.

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FISH probes

NLIM1 91 4


 In situOther
Aerobic Heterotroph126
Nitrite Reduction6
Sulfate Reduction
Short-chain Fatty Acids1210
Proteins/Amino Acids1210

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Activated Sludge1.12.87.9

Predominant InInfluent


[1] Liu, Tanner, Schumann, Weiss, McKenzie, Janssen, et al. (2002): Emended description of the genus Trichococcus, description of Trichococcus collinsii sp. nov., and reclassification of Lactosphaera pasteurii as Trichococcus pasteurii comb. nov. and of Ruminococcus palustris as Trichococcus palustris comb. nov. in the low-G+C gram-positive bacteria. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52 (Pt 4): 1113-26. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-4-1113

[2] Pikuta, Hoover, Bej, Marsic, Whitman, Krader, et al. (2006): Trichococcus patagoniensis sp. nov., a facultative anaerobe that grows at -5 degrees C, isolated from penguin guano in Chilean Patagonia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 56 (Pt 9): 2055-62. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.64225-0

[3] Liu, Burrell, Seviour, Soddell, Blackall, Seviour, et al. (2000): The filamentous bacterial morphotype 'Nostocoida limicola' I contains at least two previously described genera in the low G+C gram positive bacteria. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 23 (4): 528-34. doi:10.1016/S0723-2020(00)80027-2

[4] Liu, Seviour (2001): Design and application of oligonucleotide probes for fluorescent in situ identification of the filamentous bacterial morphotype Nostocoida limicola in activated sludge. Environ. Microbiol. 3 (9): 551-60.

[5] Saunders, Albertsen, Vollertsen, Nielsen (2016): The activated sludge ecosystem contains a core community of abundant organisms. ISME J 10 (1): 11-20. doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.117

[6] Scheff, G., Salcher, O., and Lingens, F. (1984) Trichococcus flocculiformis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new gram positive filamentous bacterium isolated from bulking sludge. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 19(2): 114-119. - Scheff Et Al 1984 -

[7] - -

[8] Jiang, Wang, Dong (2010): Methanol as the primary methanogenic and acetogenic precursor in the cold Zoige wetland at Tibetan plateau. Microb. Ecol. 60 (1): 206-13. doi:10.1007/s00248-009-9602-0

[9] - NCBI genome database, NCBI id 82802 -

[10] Dai, Zhang, Li, Li, Deng, Wang, et al. (2018): Characterization of Trichococcus paludicola sp. nov. and Trichococcus alkaliphilus sp. nov., isolated from a high-elevation wetland, by phenotypic and genomic analyses. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 68 (1): 99-105. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.002464

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