Confocal image of "Ca. Kouleothrix" (yellow) in an activated sludge sample. - Source:1Aerobic heterotroph
Filamentous organisms with a type 1851 morphotype, which has long been associated with bulking episodes. They are often arranged in bundles of filaments with attached growth 4. Specialized in metabolism of sugars 5 3. Pure cultures were shown to ferment 5, though anaerobic uptake of substrates has not been observed in situ 3. Exoenzymic surface activity includes esterase, with some filaments also possessing glucuronidase and galactosidase activities 3.
More prevalent in plants treating industrial wastes 2.
 Nielsen PH, Daims H, and Lemmer, H (2009) FISH Handbook for Biological Wastewater Treatment: Identification and quantification of microorganisms in activated sludge and biofilms by FISH. IWA Publishing Company - Nielsen Et Al 2009 -
 Kragelund, Thomsen, Mielczarek, Nielsen (2011): Eikelboom's morphotype 0803 in activated sludge belongs to the genus Caldilinea in the phylum Chloroflexi. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 76 (3): 451-62. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01065.x
 Kragelund, Levantesi, Borger, Thelen, Eikelboom, Tandoi, et al. (2007): Identity, abundance and ecophysiology of filamentous Chloroflexi species present in activated sludge treatment plants. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 59 (3): 671-82. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00251.x
 Beer, Seviour, Kong, Cunningham, Blackall, Seviour, et al. (2002): Phylogeny of the filamentous bacterium Eikelboom Type 1851, and design and application of a 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probe for its fluorescence in situ identification in activated sludge. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 207 (2): 179-83. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2002.tb11048.x
 Kohno, Sei, Mori (2002): Characterization of type 1851 organism isolated from activated sludge samples. Water Sci. Technol. 46 (1-2): 111-4.
 Sampson, MaGuire, Eriksson (2001): Botfly myiasis: case report and brief review. Ann Plast Surg 46 (2): 150-2.
 Ward, Hemp, Shih, McGlynn, Fischer (2018): Evolution of Phototrophy in the Chloroflexi Phylum Driven by Horizontal Gene Transfer. Front Microbiol 9 (): 260. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2018.00260