Confocal image of Ca. Kouleothrix (yellow) in an activated sludge sample. - Source:1Aerobic heterotroph
Filamentous organisms with a type 1851 morphotype, which has long been associated with bulking episodes. They are often arranged in bundles of filaments with attached growth 4. Specialized in metabolism of sugars 5 3. Pure cultures were shown to ferment 5, though anaerobic uptake of substrates has not been observed in situ 3. Exoenzymic surface activity includes esterase, with some filaments also possessing glucuronidase and galactosidase activities 3.
More prevalent in plants treating industrial wastes 2.
 Nielsen PH, Daims H, and Lemmer, H (2009) FISH Handbook for Biological Wastewater Treatment: Identification and quantification of microorganisms in activated sludge and biofilms by FISH. IWA Publishing Company - Nielsen Et Al 2009 -
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