Candidatus Promineofilum

Genus nameCandidatus Promineofilum
SourcePublished
Alternative namesEikelboom type 0092, Brachythrix, B45 (MiDAS 1.20)

Taxonomy

KingdomBacteria
PhylumChloroflexi
Order419
Family2-1

16S gene copy number1
GenomesYes1

 In situOther
Filamentous12
Hydrophobic cell surface1


Confocal laser-scanning microscopy image of FISH probed WWTP biomass. Magenta cells are those responding to both CFXmix (CY5) and CFX223 (CY3) FISH probes for B45. Blue cells are those responding to the CFXmix probes alone. Blue and magenta cells lack EUBmix FISH target sites; green cells are those responding only to the EUBmix (FLUOS) probes; light blue cells are those responding to EUBmix plus CFXmix probes together. - Source:2

Autotroph/Mixotroph
Aerobic heterotroph
Nitrite reduction
Fermentation
Sugars
Proteins/Amino acids

POSNEGVariableNot assessed

Description

Filamentous organisms with an Eikelboom type 0092 morphotype, often located inside flocs. They are potentially important for floc structure 2 3 and have long been associated with bulking episodes, although a direct link between their proliferation and bulking episodes has not been established. A metabolic model was constructed for this organism, based on annotation of its genome, showing its ability to generate energy by respiration, utilizing oxygen, nitrite or nitrous oxide as electron acceptors, or by fermentation of sugars. The ability of B45 members to ferment sugars under anaerobic conditions was validated in situ 1.

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Distribution plant/process configuration

Anecdotal evidence suggest they are relatively more abundant in EBPR plants 2.

FISH probes

CFX197 + CFX223 2

Metabolism

 In situOther
Autotroph/Mixotroph1
AOB1
NOB1
Anammox1
Aerobic Heterotroph11
PAO2
GAO2
Nitrite Reduction1
Sulphate Reduction1
Fermentation11
Acetogen1
Methanogen1
Fatty Acids1
Sugars11
Proteins/Amino Acids1

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Influent000.1
Activated Sludge0.20.83.6
Digester-Mesophilic0.10.51.9
Digester-Thermophilic0.20.85.1

Predominant InActivated sludge

References

[1] McIlroy, Karst, Nierychlo, Dueholm, Albertsen, Kirkegaard, et al. - Genomic and in situ investigations of the novel uncultured Chloroflexi associated with 0092 morphotype filamentous bulking in activated sludge. - ISME J 10(9): 2223-34. doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.14

[2] Speirs, Nittami, McIlroy, Schroeder, Seviour - Filamentous bacterium Eikelboom type 0092 in activated sludge plants in Australia is a member of the phylum Chloroflexi. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75(8): 2446-52. doi:10.1128/AEM.02310-08

[3] Mielczarek, Kragelund, Eriksen, Nielsen - Population dynamics of filamentous bacteria in Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal. - Water Res. 46(12): 3781-95. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2012.04.009

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The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the Silva database and is redistributed for non-commercial use only.

 

Citing MiDAS: McIlroy S.J., Saunders A.M., Albertsen M., Nierychlo M., McIlroy B., Hansen A.A., Karst S.M., Nielsen J.L., Nielsen P.H. (2015) MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge. Database, Vol. 2015

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