Genus nameFlavobacterium
Alternative names
NCBI taxonomy ID237



16S gene copy number3-6

 In situOther
Hydrophobic cell surface18192021

Transmission electron micrograph of Flavobacterium seoulense EM1321T. Scale bar, 200 nm. - Source:3

Aerobic heterotroph
Fatty acids
Proteins/Amino acids

POSNEGVariableNot assessed


While Flavobacterium are commonly seen in activated sludge, their physiology in situ has not been determined. Members of the genus are aerobic with a respiratory type of metabolism 13. Anaerobic growth is also possible for some species under certain growth conditions 13 14. They are chemoheterotrophs or chemoorganotrophic 13. Various polysaccharides are hydrolyzed by several species in the genus, including starch, chitin, pectin, and carboxymethyl cellulose 13 11 8. Cells are rod shaped, however, shorter or longer filamentous cells may be produced under certain growth conditions 13. Floc forming ability has been demonstrated in pure culture 15 16 17.

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 In situOther
Aerobic Heterotroph1314
Nitrite Reduction
Sulphate Reduction
Fatty Acids471417
Proteins/Amino Acids478131417

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Activated Sludge0.10.31.1

Predominant InInfluent


[1] - NCBI genome database, NCBI id 237 -

[2] McTaggart, Shapiro, Woyke, Chistoserdova - Draft genomes of two strains of flavobacterium isolated from lake washington sediment. - Genome Announc 3(1): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.01597-14

[3] Shin, Goo, Cho, Kwon, Yong, Yi, et al. - Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium seoulense sp. nov. - Stand Genomic Sci 9(): 34. doi:10.1186/1944-3277-9-34

[4] Kolton, Green, Harel, Sela, Elad, Cytryn, et al. - Draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi). - J. Bacteriol. 194(19): 5462-3. doi:10.1128/JB.01249-12

[5] Wu, Kropinski, Lumsden, Dixon, MacInnes - Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum ATCC 49418(T.). - Stand Genomic Sci 10(): 3. doi:10.1186/1944-3277-10-3

[6] Wiens, LaPatra, Welch, Rexroad, Call, Cain, et al. - Complete Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Strain CSF259-93, Used To Select Rainbow Trout for Increased Genetic Resistance against Bacterial Cold Water Disease. - Genome Announc 2(5): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00889-14

[7] Duchaud, Boussaha, Loux, Bernardet, Michel, Kerouault, et al. - Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum. - Nat. Biotechnol. 25(7): 763-9. doi:10.1038/nbt1313

[8] McBride, Xie, Martens, Lapidus, Henrissat, Rhodes, et al. - Novel features of the polysaccharide-digesting gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae as revealed by genome sequence analysis. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75(21): 6864-75. doi:10.1128/AEM.01495-09

[9] Barbier, Houel, Loux, Poulain, Bernardet, Touchon, et al. - Complete genome sequence of Flavobacterium indicum GPSTA100-9T, isolated from warm spring water. - J. Bacteriol. 194(11): 3024-5. doi:10.1128/JB.00420-12

[10] Tekedar, Karsi, Gillaspy, Dyer, Benton, Zaitshik, et al. - Genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare ATCC 49512. - J. Bacteriol. 194(10): 2763-4. doi:10.1128/JB.00281-12

[11] Touchon, Barbier, Bernardet, Loux, Vacherie, Barbe, et al. - Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium branchiophilum. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(21): 7656-62. doi:10.1128/AEM.05625-11

[12] Wan, Hou, Saito, Kaneshiro, Donachie - Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium akiainvivens IK-1T, Isolated from Decaying Wikstroemia oahuensis, an Endemic Hawaiian Shrub. - Genome Announc 3(5): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.01222-15

[13] Bernardet, J-F., Segers, P., Vancanneyt, M., Berthe, F.,Kersters, K., and Vandamme, P. (1996) Cutting a Gordian Knot: Emended classification and description of the family Flavobacteriaceae, and proposal of Flavobacterium hydatis nom. Nov. (Basonym, Cytophaga aquatilis Strohl and Tait 1978). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46(1): 128-148. - Bernardet Et Al 1996 -

[14] Bernardet, J-F., and Baumann, J.P. (2006) The genus Flavobacterium. In: M. Dworkin., S. Falkow., E. Rosenberg., K-H. Schleifer., E. Stackedbrandt. The Prokaryotes, volume 7: Proteobacteria, Delta, Epsilon, subclass. Pp481-531. Springer, New York. - Bernardet And Baumann 2006 -

[15] Endo, T., Nakamura, K., and Takahashi, H. (1976) Pronase-susceptible floc forming bacteria: relationship between flocculation and calcium ion. Agr. Biol. Chem. 40(11): 2289-2295. - Endo 1976 -

[16] Hantula, J., and Bamford, D.H. (1991) The efficiency of the protein dependent flocculation of Flavobacterium species is sensitive to the composition to growth medium. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 36:100-104. - Hantula And Bamford 1991 -

[17] Tezuka - Cation-dependent flocculation in a Flavobacterium species predominant in activated sludge. - Appl Microbiol 17(2): 222-6.

[18] Zita, Hermansson - Determination of bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity of single cells in cultures and in wastewater in situ. - FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 152(2): 299-306.

[19] Guo, Zhang, Yu, Wei - Variations of both bacterial community and extracellular polymers: the inducements of increase of cell hydrophobicity from biofloc to aerobic granule sludge. - Bioresour. Technol. 102(11): 6421-8. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2011.03.046

[20] Basson, Flemming, Chenia - Evaluation of adherence, hydrophobicity, aggregation, and biofilm development of Flavobacterium johnsoniae-like isolates. - Microb. Ecol. 55(1): 1-14. doi:10.1007/s00248-007-9245-y

[21] Møller, Larsen, Madsen, Dalsgaard - Involvement of a sialic acid-binding lectin with hemagglutination and hydrophobicity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69(9): 5275-80.

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Citing MiDAS: McIlroy S.J., Saunders A.M., Albertsen M., Nierychlo M., McIlroy B., Hansen A.A., Karst S.M., Nielsen J.L., Nielsen P.H. (2015) MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge. Database, Vol. 2015

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