Genus nameBifidobacterium
Alternative names
NCBI taxonomy ID1678



16S gene copy number2-5

 In situOther
Hydrophobic cell surface272829

Cellular morphology in the Genus Bifidobacterium. Phase-contrast photomicrographs (magnification 1500x). A) B. bifidum; b) B. asteroides; c) B. pullorum; d) B. ruminantium. Bar= 10 microns. - Source:2

Aerobic heterotroph
Fatty acids
Proteins/Amino acids

POSNEGVariableNot assessed


Fermentative, faecal bacteria with rod shaped morphology 2. Cells appear in a number of various shapes, which may occur singly, in chains, in star-like aggregates or in V 'palisade' arrangements 2. Bifidobacteria are anaerobic, although some species can be aerotolerant in the presence of CO2 2. Species including B. psychraerophilum, B. scardovii, and B. tsurumiense can grow under aerobic conditions 2. Metabolism is fermentative and saccharoclastic, where simple and complex sugars are utilised as a carbon source for growth 2. Acetic and lactic acid are primary products of fermentation 2. Characteristic of the genus is the exclusive degradation of glucose by the fructose 6-phosphate shunt 2. No information is currently available for the in-situ physiology of the genus in activated sludge.

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FISH probes

PAD, PBI, PBR, PIN, PLO (species specific probes) 25. Bif164, Bif662 26.


 In situOther
Aerobic Heterotroph2
Nitrite Reduction
Sulphate Reduction
Fatty Acids2
Proteins/Amino Acids231

Abundance Information

 10 % percentileMedian90 % percentile
Activated Sludge000

Predominant In-


[1] - NCBI genome database, NCBI id 1678 -

[2] Biavati, B., and Mattarelli, P. (2012) Phylum XXVI. Actinobacteria phyl. Nov. In: M. Goodfellow., P. Kampfer., H-J. Busse., M.E. Trujillo., K-I. Suzuki., W. Ludwig., and W.B. Whitman (eds). Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Genus I. Bifidobacterium Orla-Jensen 1924, 472, pp 171-206. Volume 5, The Actinobacteria, Part A and B. Springer, New York. - Biavati Et Al 2012 -

[3] Zhu, Sun, Huo, Yang, Liu, Li, et al. - Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis KLDS 2.0603, a probiotic strain with digestive tract resistance and adhesion to the intestinal epithelial cells. - J. Biotechnol. 220(): 49-50. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2016.01.013

[4] Toh, Yamazaki, Tashiro, Kawarai, Oshima, Nakano, et al. - Draft Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium aesculapii DSM 26737T, Isolated from Feces of Baby Common Marmoset. - Genome Announc 3(6): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.01463-15

[5] Kwak, Yoon, Kwon, Chung, Seo, Kim, et al. - Complete genome sequence of the probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium breve KCTC 12201BP isolated from a healthy infant. - J. Biotechnol. 214(): 156-7. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.09.035

[6] Kwon, Kwak, Seo, Chung, Kim - Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 12200BP, a probiotic strain promoting the intestinal health. - J. Biotechnol. 214(): 169-70. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.09.039

[7] Chen, E, Gu, Lv, Li - Complete Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium actinocoloniiforme Type Strain DSM 22766T, Isolated from Bumblebee Digestive Tracts. - Genome Announc 3(5): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.01084-15

[8] Morita, Toh, Oshima, Nakano, Omori, Hattori, et al. - Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium breve JCM 1192(T) isolated from infant feces. - J. Biotechnol. 210(): 81-2. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.06.414

[9] Morita, Toh, Oshima, Nakano, Kiuchi, Kuroyanagi, et al. - Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium angulatum JCM 7096(T) isolated from human feces. - J. Biotechnol. 211(): 10-1. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.06.412

[10] Dyachkova, Klimina, Kovtun, Zakharevich, Nezametdinova, Averina, et al. - Draft Genome Sequences of Bifidobacterium angulatum GT102 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis 150: Focusing on the Genes Potentially Involved in the Gut-Brain Axis. - Genome Announc 3(4): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00709-15

[11] Morita, Toh, Oshima, Nakano, Yamashita, Iioka, et al. - Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium catenulatum JCM 1194(T) isolated from human feces. - J. Biotechnol. 210(): 25-6. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.06.415

[12] Morita, Toh, Oshima, Nakano, Shindo, Komiya, et al. - Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 1255(T) isolated from feces of a breast-fed infant. - J. Biotechnol. 210(): 66-7. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.06.413

[13] Morita, Toh, Oshima, Nakano, Arakawa, Takayama, et al. - Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum JCM 1200(T) isolated from infant feces. - J. Biotechnol. 210(): 68-9. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.06.416

[14] Zakharevich, Averina, Klimina, Kudryavtseva, Kasianov, Makeev, et al. - Complete Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium longum GT15: Identification and Characterization of Unique and Global Regulatory Genes. - Microb. Ecol. 70(3): 819-34. doi:10.1007/s00248-015-0603-x

[15] Morita, Toh, Nakano, Oshima, Takagi, Suda, et al. - Complete Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense JCM 15439T, Isolated from Feces from a Healthy Japanese Infant. - Genome Announc 3(2): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00255-15

[16] Toh, Oshima, Nakano, Yamashita, Iioka, Kurokawa, et al. - Complete Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium scardovii Strain JCM 12489T, Isolated from Human Blood. - Genome Announc 3(2): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00285-15

[17] Toh, Hayashi, Oshima, Nakano, Takayama, Takanashi, et al. - Complete Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium dentium Strain JCM 1195T, Isolated from Human Dental Caries. - Genome Announc 3(2): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00284-15

[18] Sun, Zhao, Ren, Liu, Zhang, Guo, et al. - Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis A6, a probiotic strain with high acid resistance ability. - J. Biotechnol. 200(): 8-9. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.02.016

[19] Liu, Zhao, Ren, Sun, Zhang, Guo, et al. - Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium adolesentis BBMN23, a probiotic strain from healthy centenarian. - J. Biotechnol. 198(): 44-5. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.02.003

[20] Vazquez-Gutierrez, Lacroix, Chassard, Klumpp, Jans, Stevens, et al. - Complete and Assembled Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense PV20-2, Isolated from the Feces of an Anemic Kenyan Infant. - Genome Announc 3(1): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.01467-14

[21] Alegría, Delgado, Guadamuro, Flórez, Felis, Torriani, et al. - The genome of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum IPLA 36007, a human intestinal strain with isoflavone-activation activity. - Gut Pathog 6(): 31. doi:10.1186/1757-4749-6-31

[22] Lugli, Duranti, Milani, Turroni, Viappiani, Mangifesta, et al. - The Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium moukalabense DSM 27321 Highlights the Close Phylogenetic Relatedness with the Bifidobacterium dentium Taxon. - Genome Announc 2(1): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00048-14

[23] Anderson, Johansson, Sheehan, Mott, Corby-Harris, Johnstone, et al. - Draft genome sequences of two Bifidobacterium sp. from the honey bee (Apis mellifera). - Gut Pathog 5(1): 42. doi:10.1186/1757-4749-5-42

[24] Jans, Lacroix, Follador, Stevens - Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Bifidobacterium thermophilum Strain RBL67. - Genome Announc 1(3): . doi:10.1128/genomeA.00191-13

[25] Yamamoto, Morotomi, Tanaka - Species-specific oligonucleotide probes for five Bifidobacterium species detected in human intestinal microflora. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58(12): 4076-9.

[26] Langendijk, Schut, Jansen, Raangs, Kamphuis, Wilkinson, et al. - Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of Bifidobacterium spp. with genus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes and its application in fecal samples. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(8): 3069-75.

[27] Del Re, Sgorbati, Miglioli, Palenzona - Adhesion, autoaggregation and hydrophobicity of 13 strains of Bifidobacterium longum. - Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 31(6): 438-42.

[28] Pérez, Minnaard, Disalvo, De Antoni - Surface properties of bifidobacterial strains of human origin. - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64(1): 21-6.

[29] Canzi, Guglielmetti, Mora, Tamagnini, Parini - Conditions affecting cell surface properties of human intestinal bifidobacteria. - Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 88(3-4): 207-19. doi:10.1007/s10482-005-6501-3

[30] Shyamala, Rao, Ranganath - Inversion polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium in Drosophila sulfurigaster neonasuta. - J. Hered. 80(6): 488-90.

[31] Cei, Hiol, Gobardhan, Nepos, Felicite, Mahieu, et al. - Growth and carcass attributes of growing Creole kids according to experimental infection level and type of diet. - Trop Anim Health Prod 47(5): 953-60. doi:10.1007/s11250-015-0814-7

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The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the Silva database and is redistributed for non-commercial use only.


Citing MiDAS: McIlroy S.J., Saunders A.M., Albertsen M., Nierychlo M., McIlroy B., Hansen A.A., Karst S.M., Nielsen J.L., Nielsen P.H. (2015) MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge. Database, Vol. 2015

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